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Sunday 15 July 2012
Could Painting Your Nails Put You At Risk For Diabetes?
15 Jul   by Lisa

We know chemicals can be harmful.  We know now that there have been more and more studies on exactly which chemicals are toxic to us.  We are seeing BPH-free plastic bottles.  We know it's advised to use as many natural products as possible.  But until recently, disease specific risk factors have not been well publicized.  Last week the journal  of Environmental Health Perspectives made public it's findings.  Information from a government study that looked at 2,350 women varying from age 20 to 80.  Their urine was examined for phthalates and the findings were shocking.  Phthalates are in a class of chemicals called "endocrine disrupters".  This class of chemicals can alter hormone production; estrogen and insulin are hormones.  Those women who had the highest levels of phthalates in their urine were at twice the risk for developing insulin resistance and diabetes.
 
What can you do?  Know what you are putting into your body and what type of risk factors are associated with it.  I've attached a fact sheet on phthalates.
 
Fact Sheet
 
Excerpt from a 2007 FACT SHEET on PHTHALATES 
Food
Phthalates can be released into aqueous solution foods during microwaving in plasticcontainers (3). Phthalates may also enter food by environmental uptake during crop cultivationor by migration from processing equipment or packaging materials (4, 5) 
 
Water 
Phthalates are found in ground water and drinking water. From 1987 to 1993, according to EPA's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, DEHP releases to land and water totaled over 500,000 lbs., of which about 5 percent was to water (6). 
 
Infant formula and milk
Some phthalates occur as contaminants in consumer milk and ready-to-use baby formulasbased on cow’s milk (7-8). One study analyzed seven samples of consumer milk and tensamples of infant formula (7). Only MBP and MEHP were detected in these samples, in theranges 0.6–3.9 ug L(–1) (MBP) and 5.6–9.9 ug L(–1) (MEHP). 
 
Medications and nutritional supplements
Pharmaceutical preparations intended to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such asulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer, are often coated with a polymer that allows the drug tobe delivered directly to the colon or small intestine. This polymer may contain plasticizerphthalates such as DBP and DEP (9, 10). Other pharmaceutical products may also havephthalate plasticizers in their coatings, including some antibiotics, antihistamines and laxatives.Patented herbal preparations and nutritional supplements may also contain phthalates (2).
 
Toys
Polymer toys softened with phthalates are a source of potential oral exposure in children (2). In1999, the European Union temporarily banned marketing of all children’s toys and child-carearticles containing DEHP, DBP, and BBP as well as toys containing DiNP, DnOP, and DiDPintended for children
 
Inhalation 
Indoor air and house dust
Vapors emitted from building materials, furniture and household fragrances are potential indoorsources of phthalate exposures (12, 13). Phthalates have been found in house dust in differentcountries, including the US, Germany, Japan and Norway (14-18). One study in Norway founda mean of 960 μg total phthalates/g dust in 38 homes (range 130–2920 μg/g dust) (14). Of theindividual phthalates tested, DEHP was present in the highest levels (mean 640μg/g dust;range 100–1610 μg/g dust). The researchers estimated mean adult inhalation exposure toDEHP from this source to be 0.76 μg/day. A German study of 254 children, found that thelevels of DEHP in house dust were not correlated with urinary levels of DEHP metabolites (15).However, another study found a significant correlation between urinary levels and house dustlevels of DEP, DBP and BBP (16). This suggests that inhalation of house dust may be animportant source of exposure for the lower molecular weight phthalates, but not the higherweight phthalates (2).   
 
Medical devices
Some phthalate esters, such as DEHP, may be transferred into respiratory gases passingthrough PVC tubing (2, 19). 
 
Baking modeling clay
Polymer modeling clay contains a complex mixture of phthalates that give the clay a soft consistency at room temperature. When the clay is baked, phthalates are released into the airand can be inhaled (20).  
 
Intravenous Medical devices
A variety of medical devices used to deliver medical care such as bags and tubing forintravenous fluids, nutritional formulas, blood transfusions, and dialysis are made of PVCplastics softened with phthalates, usually DEHP. DEHP can leach out from these products(20). DEHP has been found in newborns treated in neonatal intensive care units with medicaldevices made with polyvinyl chloride plastic containing DEHP (22-24). 
 
Skin Absorption 
 
Clothing
Skin absorption can occur through direct contact with phthalate-containing clothing products,such as DEHP-containing gloves (artificial leather) and waterproof clothing. 
 
Cosmetics and personal care products
Phthalates are used in a variety of cosmetic and personal care products, such as nail polishes,perfumes, hairsprays, skin moisturizers and shampoos. In one study, the levels of selectedphthalates were measured in 102 branded hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, and nailpolishes (25). The median exposure levels to phthalates in cosmetics by skin absorption wereestimated to be 0.0006 g/kg body weight /d for DEHP, 0.6 g/kg body weight /d for DEP, and0.103 g/kg body weight/d for DBP. Skin absorption of chemicals from the face may be up to10-fold higher than the arm (2).
 
Modeling clay
Skin absorption may occur through direct contact with polymer modeling clay containingphthalates (20). 
 
Denture materials
Phthalates can be found in temporary denture soft lining materials. One study tested fourbrands of plasticizer-based soft lining materials (26). For two of the brands, the averageamount of leached DBP within the first day exceeded the proposed tolerable daily intake for anaverage adult person by about 11 and 32 times, respectively. The cumulative amount leachedover 30 days for each of the four materials was 128-253 mg plasticizer /g(-1). 
 
FDAThe FDA allows the use of phthalates in food contact items, and in the past has found thatexposures are very low. Food contact items include packaging materials (adhesives andcompounds of coatings, paper, and paperboard products, polymers, adjuvants, and productionsaids) as well as a wide array of other materials. However, there has not been a recent review oftheir toxicities and the potential for exposures via this use (63).In September 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) completed its safety assessment ofDEHP released from medical devices made with PVC (21). It found that, for several medicalprocedures, the dose of DEHP that patients might receive exceeds the "Tolerable Intake" (TI)value for DEHP. However, the FDA advises that “the risk of not doing a needed procedure is fargreater than the risk associated with exposure to DEHP (64).” In addition, it recommendsconsidering “alternatives when these high-risk procedures are to be performed on male neonates,pregnant women who are carrying male fetuses, and peripubertal males. One source foridentifying alternative devices that do not contain DEHP-plasticized PVC link, associated with the University of Massachusetts Lowell.” 
 
AUTHORSJanice Barlow, RN, NPBay Area Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Center COTCUniversity of California San FranciscoKatie Brown, Ph.DUniversity of Cincinnati Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Center COTCJo Ann P. Johnson, MPHBay Area Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Center COTCUniversity of California San FranciscoLacie Scofield, MSPHNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
 
SCIENTIFIC REVIEWERSThis fact sheet was reviewed for scientific accuracy by:Coral A. Lamartiniere, Ph.D.Professor, Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyUniversity of Alabama, BirminghamFox Chase Breast Cancer and the Environment Research CenterTimothy R. Zacharewski, Ph.D.Professor, Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyCenter for Integrative ToxicologyMichigan State University, East Lansing, MichiganFor more information on the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Centers, go to link publication was carried out as part of the NIEHS/NCI Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Centers, four centers with transdisciplinary research collaborations integratedacross biologic, epidemiologic, and community outreach cores. Funding was provided by grant numbers ES/CA 012770, 012771, 012800, and 012801 from the National Institute ofEnvironmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), NIH, DHHS. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent theofficial views of the NIEHS or NCI, NIH.
 
REFERENCES and entire article:  link
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